Head of LaMia Airlines arrested in plane crash investigation

SANTA CRUZ, Bolivia, Dec. 7 (UPI) -- Bolivian officials said Gustavo Vargas Gamboa, general director of LaMia Airlines, was arrested in the investigation of last week's plane crash in Colombia in which 71 people died.

Vargas Gamboa, a former Bolivian air force general, was arrested after Bolivian prosecutors raided LaMia Airlines' offices in Santa Cruz on Tuesday.
Bolivia's Ministry of Defense said an investigation was launched into alleged traffic of influence between the Directorate General of Civil Aviation government agency and LaMia. Vargas Gamboa is the father of the agency's director in charge of granting operating licenses to airlines, a potential conflict of interest.

Vargas Gamboa's son, Gustavo Vargas Villegas, was suspended last week after LaMia Airlines' operations were also suspended. Officials are also working to definitively determine the cause of the crash in order to establish the possible range of culpability.
Bolivia's Public Prosecutor's Office said prosecutors from Brazil and Colombia will meet in Santa Cruz on Wednesday to "carry out coordinated work ... to arrive at the historical truth of the facts" related to the plane crash.
The LaMia Flight 2933 charter plane headed from Bolivia to Medellin for the championship match of the Copa Sudamericana crashed Nov. 28 into mountainous terrain near Rionegro, Colombia. Most of the victims were members of the Chapecoense Brazilian soccer team -- 19 of which were players and 25 of which were team executives. Six people survived.
On the audio recording, pilots in the cockpit repeatedly told air traffic controllers they were having difficulty controlling the airplane, were experiencing electrical problems and were nearly out of fuel.
Bolivia's Defense Ministry said Miguel Quiroga, the pilot of the doomed plane, was previously arrested for leaving the Bolivian air force to work on private flights. He said Quiroga and four others who resigned to work in the private sector were arrested because their actions went against military regulations, particularly after the government spent $50,000 in training. Quiroga died in the crash.
"We wanted to detain Captain Quiroga. Even more, he was detained and only came out due to a ruling four, five months ago," Defense Minister Reymi Ferreira said.
Source: upi

NASA Armstrong Fact Sheet: ER-2 High-Altitude Airborne Science Aircraft

NASA operates two Airborne Science ER-2 aircraft for a wide variety of environmental science, atmospheric sampling, and satellite data verification missions. (NASA / Carla Thomas)

NASA operates two Lockheed ER-2 Earth resources aircraft as flying laboratories in the Airborne Science Program under the Agency's Science Mission Directorate. The aircraft, based at NASA Armstrong's Building 703 in Palmdale, CA, collect information about Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation.



Program History

NASA aircraft acquired its first ER-2 aircraft in 1981 and a second in 1989. They replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect science data since 1971. The U-2s, and later the ER-2s, were based at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA, until 1997, when the ER-2s and their operations moved to NASA Dryden.

Since the Airborne Science Program's inaugural flight on Aug. 31, 1971, NASA U-2s and ER-2s have flown more than 4,500 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research.

NASA's ER-2 set a world-altitude record for the class of aircraft with a takeoff weight between 26,455 and 35,275 lb on Nov. 19, 1998, when the aircraft reached 68,700 feet.



NASA Dryden life support technician Jim Sokolik assists pressure-suited pilot Dee Porter into the cockpit of NASA's ER-2 Earth resources aircraft.
Credits: NASA Photo / Jim Ross


NASA ER-2s have played an important role in Earth science research because of their ability to fly into the lower stratosphere at subsonic speeds, enabling direct stratospheric sampling as well as virtual satellite simulation missions. The aircraft's unique capabilities enable studies such as stratospheric ozone concentrations over Antarctica and the Arctic.

In August and September 1987, an ER-2 traveled to Chile to conduct overflights of the Antarctic. The direct measurements from the ER-2, combined with remote-sensing measurements from ground-based and satellite sensors, provided information suggesting that human-made chemical compounds, specifically chlorofluorocarbons, caused ozone depletion over the Antarctic region. The first field study of summer polar ozone conditions took place during a series of flights from Fairbanks, Alaska, between April and September 1997.

During the winter of 1999/2000, an ER-2, teamed with NASA's DC-8 flying science platform, participated in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). Based in Kiruna, Sweden, SOLVE was the largest field campaign conducted to measure ozone in the Arctic stratosphere.

The ER-2 has been an invaluable tool for studying tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification and landfall impacts. During the July 2005 Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes mission based in Costa Rica, the ER-2 carried instruments that measured the buildup and behavior of tropical storm systems over Mexico and Central America and in the eastern Pacific, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico. The aircraft flew over several hurricanes, including Emily and Dennis that were both violent Category 4-5 storms, and collected information on their entire vertical structure. Data were collected about the temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind related to tropical cyclones and other related phenomena that often lead to development of more powerful storms at sea.

Satellite Sensor Development and Simulation

Since Airborne Science's inception, the NASA U-2s and ER-2s have assisted in developing satellite sensors by testing prototypes or by simulating proposed configurations with existing systems.

The ER-2 carries the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), a 224-band hyper-spectral scanner designed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. AVIRIS is a prototype of hyper-spectral scanners proposed for orbit on future satellite platforms. Collecting data with prototype instruments allows scientists to analyze and interpret the information future satellites will provide.

In December 2010, the ER-2 first carried the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) simulator. MABEL, developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, was flown to test the satellite's measurement concept. MABEL was again mounted in the nose of the aircraft in March 2011 for flights over a variety of terrains. In April 2012, the aircraft carried MABEL for a deployment to study Greenland's ice sheet, glaciers and sea ice. Based in Iceland, the ER-2 flew to altitudes of 65,000 feet as the sensor gathered algorithm development data that may allow ICESat-2, scheduled to launch in 2016, to make more precise measurements of global ice.

ER-2 Deployments

The ER-2 has deployed to six continents investigating global warming and ozone depletion and acquired extensive digital multi-spectral imagery for global climate change research and aerial photography. These missions have tested prototype satellite imaging sensors and have acquired Earth resources data for research projects sponsored by NASA and federal agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Army Corps of Engineers.

ER-2 Aircraft Capabilities

The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well suited to perform multiple mission tasks. The ER-2 operates at altitudes from 20,000 feet to 70,000 feet, which is above 99 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. Depending on aircraft weight, the ER-2 reaches an initial cruise altitude of 65,000 feet within 20 minutes. Typical cruise speed is 410 knots. The range for a normal eight-hour mission is 3,000 nautical miles yielding seven hours of data collection at altitude. The aircraft is capable of longer missions in excess of 10 hours and ranges in excess of 6,000 nautical miles. The ER-2 can carry a maximum payload of 2,600 lb (1,179 kilograms) distributed in the equipment bay, nose area, and wing pods.

The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements.
Source: NASA

World's longest rail tunnel to open in Switzerland under Alps

Measuring 57 km in length, situated 2.3km deep under the Alps and having cost €11bn to complete, Switzerland’s Gotthard base tunnel is more than just the world’s longest and most expensive tunnelling project.
At a time of rising nationalism and closing borders, European leaders will also hope it can serve as a reminder that the continent can still smash barriers when it manages to pull together.
It is no coincidence that the German chancellor Angela Merkel, French president François Hollande and Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi have found the time to join Swiss president Johann Schneider-Ammann for Wednesday’s maiden voyage through the rail tunnel, which contains a 152km labyrinth of galleries, cross passages and shafts and has taken 17 years to complete.
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Festivities with 1,200 invited guests, expected to cost about €8m, will mark the opening of the rail tunnel, which will be mainly used for further test journeys until commencing regular service in December 2016.
Once fully functional, the tunnel will not just slice 45 minutes off the journey time between Zurich and Lugano, but also form a central building block of the so-called Rhine-Alp corridor that stretches from the sea ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp via Germany’s industrial heartland down to the port of Genoa in Italy.
The new Gotthard base tunnel, which has been in planning since the 1980s, will bypass the old Gotthardbahn rail tunnel, which rises and falls through the massif in a winding route. Unlike its predecessor, which was completed in 1882, the new line will run on a flat low-level route, the first of its kind in the Alps.


Four giant drill heads were used to cut a path through the mountain range. In the process, almost 30m tonnes of rock and soil were transported from the massif’s inner core to the surface via a giant purpose-built lift.
At 57km, the Gotthard base tunnel is 3km longer than the world’s current record-holder, the Seikan rail tunnel that links Japan’s two largest islands, Honshu and Hokkaido, and 7km longer than the Channel tunnel that connects England and France.
Whether Switzerland will be able to hold on to its title for long is questionable. The Chinese government plans to build a tunnel underneath the Bohai straits measuring 123km – more than twice the length of the Gotthard base tunnel – to reduce journey times between the port cities of Dalian and Yantai from eight hours to 45 minutes.

Under construction: workers building the Gotthard base tunnel between Biasca and Amsteg, Switzerland, in 2013.
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 Under construction: workers building the Gotthard base tunnel between Biasca and Amsteg, Switzerland, in 2013. Photograph: Karl Mathis/AP

In Europe, the next alpine mega-tunnelling project is in progress, with a 55km tunnel underneath the Brenner designed to connect Innsbruck in Austria and Bolzano in Italy. A proposed 80km underground train link connecting Helsinki in Finland and Tallin in Estonia is awaiting approval.
In Switzerland, the hope is that the Gotthard base tunnel will not only boost the trade route between northern and southern Europe but also shift alpine traffic from road to rail and reduce CO2 emissions, thus helping to protect the ecosystem. Sixty-five per cent of the project’s construction costs were funded by a tax on heavy duty vehicles, of which about 3,600 used the old tunnel on an average day.


As a symbol of cross-border cooperation, the Gotthard tunnel may only be able to ward off the spirits of populist nationalism for so long: according to recent reportsin the Swiss media, politicians are expected to use the grand occasion, coming just weeks before the British referendum on EU membership, to rally support for measures to curb immigration.
“We can show that Switzerland is a reliable partner for Brussels and the whole of Europe, more reliable even than some of its member states,” the president of the Christian Democratic party told Neue Zürcher Zeitung. “We keep our promises, and we put our money where our mouth is.”
Relations between Switzerland and the European Union were put under strain two years ago when the country voted to introduce quotas for immigration from EU countries. Negotiations on whether Swiss measures, such as an “emergency break” on immigration in exceptional circumstances, were put on hold in the run-up to the British referendum.
Following Switzerland’s constitution, the outcome of its immigration referendum result has to be implemented by February 2017 – three years after the vote was held.


Facts and figures

The Gotthard base tunnel is 57km and in some places 2.3km from the surface. Without ventilation, the temperature inside the tunnel system is 46C (115F). The project took 17 years to build and cost 12.2bn Swiss francs. Teams excavated 28.2m tonnes of rock in the process. Trains will be able to cross the Gotthard massif at a maximum speed of 250km/h, taking about 20 minutes. The tunnel will allow 260 freight trains to pass through the tunnel every day, as opposed to 180 in the old tunnel.
 This article was amended on 1 June 2016. Antwerp was originally described a

Top 10 Visions Of The World In 1000 years

“What will the world will be like in 1,000 years”-  World In 1000 years, seems like an absurd question to even ask, especially since the degree to which the world changes in 100 years is overly ambitious enough to consider.  Yet curious people do wonder, and certain people like Ray Kurzweil (thought by many to be the Thomas Edison of today) spend all their time working to find the answers.
In honor of our 1,000th Toptenz article, Ray is going to take the podium to share with us some of his ideas about the future.  According to Ray, some of the same people living today will still be around in 1,000 years!  Technological visionary, leading inventor of our time, the recipient of the National Medal of Technology, inductee into the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame, and the recipient of 19 Doctorates and Honors from 3 U.S. Presidents, Ray gives us the top ten reasons to look ahead.

10.  A Future With Aliens?

alien-contact
Contact with other species, other civilizations?  With technological advancements looming large in the distance, a future with aliens may in fact be on the horizon.  Ray believes that advancements in technology will soon enable us to travel farther and longer into space, where we may encounter other planets and other life.1
According to Arthur C. Clarke, another futurist, inventor, and science-fiction writer, technology is advanced enough already for us to make contact with aliens.  To our good humor, some people already believe they have come in contact with alien life, and television shows like “Alien Hunters” and the like are around to prove it.  Ray, more of a humanist than an alien hunter, focuses more on technology and of the progress of humankind and our current world, which takes us to our next topic – the future of the Earth itself.

9.  The Future Of The Earth?1

future-earth
When people think of the future, they tend to think of the planet Earth, and the mark we are leaving on its oceans and forests, and the havoc we have brought to it.  Which lands will be swallowed up by rising sea levels?  About climate changes: how to support a rapidly growing population in respect to food, fuel and natural resources?
Many pessimists foresee the worst (many doubt we will even survive another 1,000 years).  Material greed is swallowing up the Earth’s resources faster than it can replenish itself.  The future, in this vein, sounds rather dark, but Ray believes1technology is going to help solve many environmental problems.
Still, who can stop asteroids and comets from colliding with the Earth?  Who can keep it from spinning off its axis like a marble shot out of bounds on the play yard?  And what about exploding stars in space shooting out bursts of gamma-rays stronger than millions of atomic bombs in far-away galaxies, with power strong enough to obliterate everything within millions of light years?  What kind of future exists for the Earth then?  According to Ray, much more interesting things, and less destructive possibilities, are on the horizon.

8.  Solutions To Energy And Environmental Concerns?

nanotechnology
Ray believes that environmental and energy concerns can, and will, be solved with technological solutions in the future.  He claims that that the Earth will not turn into a polluted, over-crowded, tumultuous wasteland, but instead believes that nanotechnology will be capable of cleaning up environmental damage, meet our energy needs, purify water and air, and capture the energy of the Sun through solar panels and more.
He believes that we will meet our projected energy needs by 2030, with the development of these new technologies.  Will his overly-positive predictions win out to restore the planet Earth, or will the technology only be more waste to add to the heap?  Certainly the next 1,000 years will reveal the correct answers to Ray’s claims, either about our resourcefulness or about our inability to solve the problems we have created.

7.  Population Growth Problems Solved?

population-overload
1,000 years from now, the world population is estimated to be roughly 14 billion.  Although such predictions are unlikely to be accurate, the concern is real, and more and more people are working fast and hard for solutions.  Will engineered food solve hunger and meet with growing food needs, or will it prove to be harmful to our health and environment in the end?
According to Ray, one day we will take in our nutrition like plants take in the sun, and as technology grows more advanced, our dependence on the Earth’s resources with become less and less.  Sounds like something straight out of a science fiction book, only better, if it proves to be true.

6.  Technology Of The Future

merge-with-technology
Ray calls it “the singularity,” a time when technology itself will merge with those creating it.  From devices in our eyeglasses and contact lenses, to displays being written directly into our retinas, emergent technology will not only change us, but will change everything.  There will be a time when we can use space itself to generate energy.
By changing our DNA, Ray believes that farther and farther space travel will be possible.  Sound like a technological utopia?  Certainly.  Taking it a step further, the technology we are currently creating will soon grow more intelligent than we are.  What to do then?  Simple: merge with that technology in order to compete.  Due to our slower evolutionary processes, only by doing this will we be able to survive against the uprising of future intelligent machines.  One day soon, Ray says, you will not be able to tell the difference between human and artificial intelligence.  This brings us to the next section on our list: intelligent machines.

5.  Visions Of Intelligent Machines

man-and-robot
The emergence of intelligent machines, Ray believes, will quantify in the future as another species, regardless of whether we encounter life outside of our solar system or not.  He believes we will be sharing our planet with robots, who will soon surpass our own intelligence, and only by becoming like the technology we create, will we be able to compete with those intelligent machines.  Ray says “the result will be an intimate merger between the technology-creating species and the technological evolutionary process it spawned.”
Ray explains extensively the exponential growth of technology versus the growth of evolutionary processes.  Intelligent machines will make it imperative to change ourselves and, in the process, we will be changing the evolution of life through intelligent machines.

4.  Space Exploration In 1,000 Years

galaxies
Humanity has not kept its feet on the ground and, whether it be to the limits of the Earth or our own biology, we are always on a quest to discover and explore our world, and the space beyond it.  In 1,000 years, just how far will we have gone?  According to Ray, we will have mapped out much more of the the cosmos.  We will be able to foretell future cosmological occurrences that can affect the Earth, and the repercussions that any those events could incur for humankind.
The biggest reason for space exploration, however, is not only to discover how the universe works, but to scout out new and interesting planets that have the potential to support human life, should unfavorable conditions appear.  So far, possible planets to live on that we have discovered are too far out of our reach, which brings us to our next section on the list.

3.  The Future Of Space Travel

Astronaut-in-space
Futurist Arthur C. Clarke, considered a visionary about space travel, believes it is only a matter of time before we have safe and economical space propulsion systems.  The questions, however, are not just in building that technology and making it affordable, but to change ourselves to withstand the negative effects that space travel has on the human body.  Ray believes that we will soon be able to alter our own DNA with emerging technology in order to withstand space travel, as DNA does not fare well in space. By doing so, we will be able to take farther and farther journeys out into space.

2.  Progress With Extending Human Life?

nanobot-dna
Of all that has been listed, number two probably has the most evidence to support it, specifically in recent years. Gerontologists and scientists are finding more and more evidence that the aging process can be slowed down.  Ray speaks extensively on how nanotechnology and nano-bots will slow the aging process, by travelling into the bloodstream to destroy pathogens, reverse the aging process, and correct DNA errors.  To add to that, Ray even talks about downloading the mind into another carrier, which is easily the most unlikely, but most thought-provoking, idea that Ray has introduced yet.

1.  Future Visions Of The Obliteration Of Death

immortal-man
If stopping the aging process wasn’t enough to shock you, try taking it even farther by saying that future technologies will stop aging completely, one day making death obsolete.  Ray believes that, one day, humans will live forever.  He refutes the idea that “the purpose of life is to accept death,” that “death always means a profound loss in relationships, talent and potential, but that up until now we have had no choice but to rationalize it.”
In Ray’s earlier book, “Fantastic Voyage:  Live Long Enough to Live Forever,” Ray writes about how people can start taking steps now to extend their lives, until the advancements in medical technology have a chance to catch up.  Nanotechnology will develop over time, becoming more capable to repair and restore our body parts.  Biotechnology is advancing and will soon make it possible to turn on and off enzymes, the workhorses of biology.  Current medical technology is taking its first steps in using these techniques to destroy HDL in the blood to stop atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases.  By creating ever-increasingly powerful technology, the future means extending human life.  Life expectancy grows longer and longer every year: where life expectancy was 37 years in the 1800’s, a thousand years from now, according to Ray, it may just be infinite!
Technology merging with biology? There is no doubt you will peruse our Top Ten list with all kinds of skepticism, and you certainly should be; these are perhaps some of the most radical ideas about the future yet.  Still, for someone like Ray Kurzweil, who has accomplished great feats within his lifetime, is there some value in even considering it?  Whether you are a believer in science, futurists, in prophets or Gods, or merely in the “little things,” certainly these visions of the future are big enough to color your imagination, and light up a place where space, time and possibility surrounds us all on every side.
Written by: toptenz

World Of Secrets Mercury And Venus

According to mythology, Mercury was the messenger of the Gods. This had to do in part with its rapid motion around the Sun. It is the closest planet to the Sun, therefore it has the shortest orbital period. Also due to its proximity to the Sun, it is very difficult to see in the morning or evening twilight. It rarely gets more than 25 degrees away from the Sun.

Mercury is so close to the Sun that astronomers thought that there would probably be orbital coupling, like the Earth-Moon system (a tidally locked system). They expected the rotation period to be the same as the orbital period, so that one side of Mercury would always face the Sun, just like one side of the Moon always faces the Earth. Does the orbital period equal the rotation period for Mercury? It is a small planet and difficult to observe, so astronomers were not sure of its rotation period. They had to wait for the invention of radar to check it out. By bouncing a radar signal off the planet, they could measure the speed of its rotation and therefore determine the period of rotation (sort of the same way a highway patrol officer can get you clocked on the radar for being slightly over the speed limit on the highway). Are the orbital period and rotation period the same? No. The period for one orbit is about 88 days, while the period for one rotation is 59 days (pretty slow spinner, eh?). At first glance this doesn't seem to be very significant, but if you were to take the ratio of the periods, 59/88, you get a number close to 2/3. What's so great about that?
The basic upshot is that there is a kind of coupling between the orbit and rotation, but not the one that was expected. For every two orbits around the Sun, Mercury rotates three times on its axis. Figure 1 shows how the orientation of an astronaut would change over time as Mercury went about the Sun. By the time the planet had made one orbit, Mercury would have made 1.5 (or 3/2) rotations; one more orbit, and there would be a total of three rotations - sort of unusual.


Figure 1. An astronaut's view on Mercury would change slowly. An astronaut is located on the side of the planet away from the Sun to begin with (position 1). As the planet moves around the Sun and rotates on its axis (both counterclockwise, as seen here), then by the time the planet has moved 1/3 of the way in its orbit, it would have rotated around 1/2 way (position 3). One complete rotation is reached by position 5, where the astronaut is again upright, and the planet has gone 2/3 of its way in its orbit. By the time one orbit is completed (position 7), the planet has completed 3/2 or 1.5 rotations. Notice how the numbers "two" and "three" keep popping up here.
The Sun's mass influences the space Mercury occupies and adds some extra distortion to Mercury's orbit in a manner known as orbital precession. Observations of its orbit over many years showed that the locations of perihelion shifts (or you could say its orbit wobbles). Early astronomers didn't know what caused it, and even Newton's law of gravity wasn't able to adequately explain it. The distortion of space around the Sun, as described by Einstein's theory of General Relativity, helps to explain the cause of the orbital precession of Mercury, so that is one mystery that was solved by a better theory (not to say that Newton's law of gravity is lousy, but sometimes it needs help).
We don't know a lot about Mercury, in part because we haven't really spent a lot of time exploring it. Also since it is so close to the Sun and relatively small, it is very difficult to view from the Earth, even with the largest telescopes. The earliest close exploration was by the Mariner 10 spacecraft which flew by in 1974-75 and was able to photograph only 1/2 of the surface. For nearly 34 that was the best information available. In 2008, a spacecraft named MESSENGER flew past the planet for the first time. After that it flew by 2 more times before changing its orbit enough to enter into a long-term orbit about the planet. From 2011 to 2015, MESSENGER was a "satellite" of Mercury and has been able to provide us with a significant amount of new information about the planet. Before 2008, we only had images of 1/2 the surface and now we have pretty much the entire surface imaged. Messenger has provided a great deal of information about the mineral characteristics of the surface as well as information about the magnetic field and likely evolutionary history of this small world. The mission ended on April 30, 2015 when the spacecraft crashed into the surface at 8,750 mph (this was an intentional impact). It probably left a good sized crater due to this, but because we don't currently have any spacecraft around Mercury, we can't see that new crater yet. There are various videos of the things Messengerobserved at Mercury available on YouTube, so you can check those out for more information.

Future Technology that Will Change the World

Steven Pete can put his hand on a hot stove or venture on a bit of glass and not feel a thing, all due to an idiosyncrasy in his qualities. Just a couple of dozen individuals on the planet share Pete's innate heartlessness to torment. Drug organizations see wealth in his uncommon change. They likewise have their eye on individuals like Timothy Dreyer, 25, who has bones so thick he could leave mishaps that would leave others with broken appendages. Around 100 individuals have sclerosteosis, Dreyer's condition.

Both men's clear superpowers originate from exceedingly extraordinary deviations in their DNA. They are hereditary exceptions, desired by medication organizations Amgen, Genentech, and others looking for medications for a portion of the business' greatest, most lucrative markets.


Their qualities likewise have brought about the two men gigantic enduring. Pete's folks initially acknowledged something wasn't right when, as a getting teeth child, their child just about bit off his tongue. "That was a goliath warning," says Pete, now 34 and living in Kelso, Wash. It took specialists months to make sense of he had inborn lack of care to torment, brought on by two distinct changes, one acquired from every guardian. All alone, the single transformations were amiable; joined, they were destructive.

Dreyer, who lives in Johannesburg, was 21 months old when his folks saw a sudden facial loss of motion. Specialists initially determined him to have paralysis. At that point X-beams uncovered over the top bone arrangement in his skull, which prompted a determination of sclerosteosis. No one in Dreyer's family had the confusion; his folks both conveyed a solitary change, which Dreyer acquired.

Dreyer and Pete are "a blessing from nature," says Andreas Grauer, worldwide advancement lead for the osteoporosis drug Amgen is making. "It is our commitment to transform it into something valuable."

What's useful for patients is additionally useful for business. The painkiller showcase alone is worth $18 billion a year. The business is squeezing ahead with exploration into hereditary anomalies. The U.S. Nourishment and Drug Administration is relied upon to support a cholesterol-bringing down treatment on July 24 from Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals taking into account the uncommon quality change of a heart stimulating exercise teacher with astoundingly low cholesterol levels. Amgen has a comparative cholesterol drug, in light of the same revelation, and expects U.S. endorsement in August. The medications can bring down cholesterol when statins alone don't work. They are relied upon to cost up to $12,000 per persistent every year and acquire more than $1 billion yearly.

Source: bloomberg

Do We Need The Moon?



Do we require the Moon to survive, or would we be able to manage without it? Perused on to discover… 

It is 2113. Mankind has put in the most recent 100 years stockpiling atomic warheads. Also, not only a couple – 600 billion of the biggest, greatest, deadliest warheads they can fabricate. Kind of like the Russian Tsar Bomba (the greatest atomic bomb ever exploded) in any case, well, times 600 billion. 
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Why? Since we've chosen to explode the Moon, and to do as such would require what might as well be called 30 trillion megatons of TNT. 

When we say explode, we don't simply mean somewhat explode. It couldn't be any more obvious, on the off chance that you don't totally decimate the Moon, the rest of the pieces will probably combine back together into a Moon-sized article. Without a doubt, it won't look as pretty or as circular as our cutting edge Moon, however it will be truly comparable in its gravitational impact on Earth. 

No, what we (or, all the more particularly, our future selves) need to do is totally dispose of the Moon. Along these lines, with their different rockets prepared and holding up to assault the Moon from all sides, they dispatch them towards our characteristic satellite and blow it to bits. Researchers around the globe energetically get ready for one of the best (and most imbecilic) tests ever. 

With the sections of the Moon too little to gravitationally bond together, they start to spread out. Initial, an expansive number of them head towards Earth, down-pouring liquid Moon rock down on our planet. Urban areas are wrecked, nations are wiped off the guide, and we start to think about whether exploding the Moon was such a splendid thought. 

The rest of the Moon material enters circle far and wide, shaping a ring around our planet. In any case, similar to Saturn's ring, it doesn't simply stay there. Occasionally, for whatever remains of Earth's life, shooting stars break from the ring and hammer into the surface. We're presently under consistent assault from an evidently vindictive Moon. 

Be that as it may, the Moon isn't exactly done getting even yet. Have you ever seen that the Moon is secured in cavities? All things considered, that is on the grounds that it gets beat by shooting stars, shielding Earth from a portion of the stones that travel our direction. With the Moon demolished, we're presently likewise more defenseless against space rocks. 

Obviously, one of the Moon's most discernible impacts is (or was) the tides. With the Moon no more there, the seas of the world turn out to be much more quiet. The Sun still affects them (known as sun based tides), so surfers wouldn't be totally without waves. Be that as it may, the seas would generally get to be tranquil. 

This diry affects life on Earth. At the point when life initially shaped on Earth in tidal pools, it was on account of the gravitational draw of the Moon that primordial life could cross between various pools and by and large spread over the planet. While we're as of now here now, life that is at present in the seas is no more ready to move so effortlessly. The stirring of the seas, and in this way the flow of supplements, stops. Water-based life battles to survive and, in the end, thousands (and presumably millions) of species go wiped out. 

The Moon isn't done yet, however. It likewise represented around one-eightieth of the Earth-Moon mass framework. The loss of the Moon straightforwardly influences the Earth's circle, turn and wobble. Without the Moon to go about as a stabilizer, the Earth starts to wobble increasingly, sending our seasons into turmoil and changing our circle around the Sun from marginally curved to enormously circular. We now swing around the Sun in a wild, precarious, fluctuating circle. 

As the world laments their rash choice to crush the Moon, it's now past the point where it is possible to do anything. In the event that mankind survives the steady assault from the remaining parts of the Moon and other space shakes, the annihilation of most different species from the globe, lastly the possibly calamitous occasional changes then, well, perhaps exploding the Moon wasn't such a terrible thought.

 
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